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WELCOME TO HAITI DAY - Thursday, February 11, 2010

Today we are given the opportunity to come together as an academic community to raise our awareness with regard to Haiti. By enlightening ourselves about Haiti, we are also developing the skills through which to interpret such crises and global events in the future.

Similar to the devastation that we witnessed in other countries, cities, and even in the aftermath of 9/11, people from all over the world are coming together to do what they can to help. Joe Daniels, President and CEO of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum at the World Trade Center, says it best when he states, "that we are reminded again of the capacity we have to care for one another and the tremendous difference that we can make when we support each other." - Mrs. Drakakis 2/11/'10

Read the following articles in order to begin our discussion. Once you read the articles, you will respond by giving your opinion about the information learned by going to the discussion setion on the navigation menu on top.

Publishing Citation Format: MLA (Modern Language Assoc.):

NOTE: Review the instructions at
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Works Cited

KRISTOF, NICHOLAS D. "Some Frank Talk About Haiti." New York Times 21 Jan. 2010: 39. Newspaper Source. EBSCO. Web. 9 Feb. 2010.

Works Cited

Elliott, Michael, et al. "Haiti's Agony. (cover story)." Time 175.3 (2010): 30. MAS Ultra - School Edition. EBSCO. Web. 9 Feb. 2010.

Section: WORLD

Haiti's Agony

One of the worst-ever natural disasters in the western hemisphere leaves the Haitian capital in ruins. What it will take to rebuild
Tragedy has a way of visiting those who can bear it least. Haiti is the poorest nation in the western hemisphere, a place where malnutrition is widespread and less than half the population has access to clean drinking water. At 4:53:09 p.m. on Jan. 12, at a point 15 miles southwest of the capital, Port-au-Prince, the Caribbean tectonic plate pushed against the neighboring North American plate along a line known as the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault system. On the earth's surface, the enormous energy created by that tremor--an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale--tossed the car that Bob Poff, the Salvation Army's director of disaster services in Haiti, was driving down the hill from the suburb of Pétionville to Port-au-Prince "to and fro like a toy." When the shaking stopped, Poff wrote on a Salvation Army blog, "I looked out of the windows to see buildings 'pancaking' down … Thousands of people poured into the streets, crying, carrying bloody bodies, looking for anyone who could help them."
Within the next few hours, the scale of the worst earthquake to hit Haiti in more than 200 years became apparent. Just as cell-phone video cameras brought the horrors of the Indian Ocean tsunami to the world in real time five years ago, so Twitter feeds and blog posts did the same for the Haiti earthquake, reporting on what had happened, asking if anyone had heard from loved ones, calling for medical supplies and Creole speakers. Louise Ivers, clinical director for Haiti for the NGO Partners in Health, wrote, "Port-au-Prince is devastated, lot of deaths. SOS. SOS … Please help us." Ian Rodgers of Save the Children posted, "We could hear buildings still crumbling down five hours after the earthquake."
A day later, the death toll was unknown and--as is always the case with earthquakes, which bury their victims--unknowable. But more than one Haitian official told news organizations that they thought the final count of the dead would be more than 100,000. The next day, Vincenzo Pugliese, a spokesman for the U.N. mission in Haiti, summed up what was known thus far. The earthquake, he said, had caused major damage, destroying the National Palace, the main cathedral and many government offices. Hotels, hospitals, schools and the capital's main prison had all been wrecked. "Casualties, which are vast," Pugliese said, "can only be estimated. Tens if not hundreds of thousands have suffered varying degrees of destruction to their homes." A nation that was already on its knees had been knocked to the ground.
Making a Tough Place Worse
The quake was not unexpected--but then, the tragedy of earthquakes is that none of them are. The world's fault lines, those dangerous boundaries between the slabs that make up the earth's crust, are well mapped. Haiti, a nation of 9 million people, sits atop the junction of the Caribbean and North American plates, which "are shearing the island, crushing it, grinding it," says Michael Blanpied, an associate coordinator for the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) earthquake-hazards program. "And as that occurs, earthquakes pop off."
That they do. Historians reckon that there have been about a dozen massive earthquakes in the Caribbean over the past 500 years. The damage they can do is well understood; in 1692, a quake caused Port Royal, Jamaica, to disappear under the Caribbean Sea, where it lies to this day. But knowing that a quake will happen one day is of little use to those who want to know if it will happen tomorrow or next week or next year. An intense, high-tech exercise in the 1980s by the USGS and the state of California to study a particularly unstable stretch of the San Andreas Fault provided absolutely no telltale signs of a quake that hit in 2004. "Earthquake prediction," says Blanpied, "if it can be done at all, is very difficult."
The Haiti earthquake was not just unusually powerful for the region; it was also shallow--a fact that, combined with the soft ground and corrugated, muddy hills around Port-au-Prince, made its impact even worse. In the city itself, sturdy buildings like the cathedral and the National Palace could not withstand the tremor, which meant that many hastily constructed concrete structures collapsed like houses of cards, killing many--the Archbishop of Port-au-Prince, for one.
Many of the city's finest buildings helped give Haitians their sense of identity and history--now the country must not only figure out how to recover but also try to rebuild its sense of self. Just as what happened on Jan. 12 was shaped by Haiti's unique topography and geology, so the final toll, too, will be determined by the nation's very special conditions. Haiti is an unlucky, star-crossed country. Once a slave colony of France, the world's first free black modern nation was born in blood more than 200 years ago, in a long and bitter war of independence. In the years since then, Haiti has suffered almost constantly from local misrule, foreign intervention and economic exploitation. Haiti was occupied by U.S. forces from 1915 to '34, and then from 1957 to '86 it was ruled by François Duvalier and his son Jean-Claude--Papa Doc and Baby Doc--whose corruption and repression crippled the nation and led to wide-scale emigration among its educated classes.
In 1994 the U.S. intervened to force out a military regime that had ousted the government of Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a charismatic priest who had been elected President in 1990. After a decade of political disorder, Aristide, by then in his second term as President, was forced into exile in 2004; since then, Minustah, a U.N. peacekeeping mission, has been in place--the latest in a long series of outside forces that have attempted to help Haitians establish peace and a measure of security.
What makes the earthquake especially "cruel and incomprehensible," as U.S. President Barack Obama put it, was that it struck at a rare moment of optimism. After decades of natural and political catastrophes, the U.N. peacekeeping force and an international investment campaign headed by former President Bill Clinton, the U.N.'s special envoy to Haiti, had recently begun to calm and rebuild the nation. But the mood of cautious optimism had not yet begun to improve the basic living conditions of ordinary Haitians. For even on its best day, Haiti is a public-health disaster. No Haitian city has a public sewage system; nearly 200,000 people live with HIV or AIDS, and just half of Haitian children are vaccinated against basic diseases like diphtheria and measles.
The quake will make things unimaginably worse. While emergency-response teams have already begun combing through the wreckage, searching for injured who might still be saved, there are ominous longer-term health risks that threaten the island. "In the weeks to come, we may have huge issues with public health," says Pino Annunziata, who is coordinating the emergency response for the World Health Organization in Geneva. Less than a day after the disaster, U.S. Navy and Coast Guard vessels were swarming toward Haiti, ready to spearhead disaster-relief efforts. Up to 2,000 Marines were told to be ready to head there. They will all be needed. In the first confused day after the quake, reports stressed the absence of heavy machinery to shift rubble and shore up buildings; people were scrabbling with their bare hands in the rubble for their loved ones. The U.S. military will aim to make sure airports and seaports are primed to receive the flood of aid that will soon flow in.
As always in the developing world, the first priority will be clean water. With drinking-water distribution systems destroyed--and survivors crammed into camps without sanitation--water supplies could quickly become contaminated. That could lead to rapidly spreading waterborne diseases like cholera and dysentery that can sweep through refugee camps.
With adequate aid, however, the worst might be averted. The world now rarely sees major outbreaks of infectious disease in the wake of disasters. Even in the case of the 2004 tsunami, which killed more than 200,000 people, a rapid and thorough response headed off what could have been a huge postdisaster death toll. Indeed, the sheer amount of international attention on Haiti might ultimately improve its public-health system--as occurred in the Indonesian province of Aceh after the tsunami.
All who wish Haiti well will hope for such a benign dispensation. Many will do more than hope. In a Twitter feed, Troy Livesay, one of the many missionaries who first brought word from Port-au-Prince, described the mood the night after the quake. "Church groups are singing … in prayer," he wrote. "It is a beautiful sound in the middle of a horrible tragedy."
You don't have to be a believer to hope that the prayers of those Haitians who have long borne sorrows not of their making are answered.
• A Disaster's Toll For continuing coverage of the Haiti earthquake, including dispatches and photos, go to time.com/haiti
MAP: Earthquake
PHOTO (COLOR): Supplies needed: A woman stands atop what may have been a grocery store. Haiti now faces food and water shortages
PHOTO (COLOR): Safety in numbers: Residents huddle in the streets of Port-au-Prince the night of the massive quake. Large buildings lacking earthquake-resistant designs pancaked, trapping hundreds. And even those living in squat cinder-block homes suffered from falling brick walls
PHOTO (COLOR): Tragedy all around: In the days following the temblor, bodies of its victims lined the streets of Port-au-Prince
PHOTO (COLOR): Palatial rubble: A soldier gazes at the remains of President René Préval's residence. During a television interview, a shell-shocked Préval said simply, "My palace collapsed."
PHOTO (COLOR): Survivor: An injured child sits on the sidewalk. The capital city's hospitals were destroyed by the earthquake
- cbdrakakis cbdrakakis Feb 10, 2010- cbdrakakis cbdrakakis Feb 10, 2010
By Michael Elliott
With reporting by Massimo Calabresi, Washington; Michael Scherer, Washington; Mark Thompson, Washington; Gilbert Cruz, New York; Jeffrey Kluger, New York; Kate Pickert, New York; Bryan Walsh, New York and Tim Padgett, Miami

Haiti's History Of Misery
Striking gold
Christopher Columbus sights Haiti in 1492. After the island becomes a Spanish colony, disease and harsh working conditions devastate the indigenous population
Eden destroyed
Spain cedes Haiti to France in 1697. The island's ecology is wrecked as slaves clear forests for sugar fields
A nation is born
Following 13 years of revolution, Haiti becomes independent in 1804. Former slave Jean-Jacques Dessalines assumes the title of Emperor. Rebels kill him two years later. Civil war breaks out
America's backyard
Citing the Monroe Doctrine, President Woodrow Wilson orders U.S. Marines to occupy Haiti in 1915. They favor the biracial élite over black Haitians, deepening long-standing tensions. The U.S. withdraws in 1934
Bad medicine
Voodoo doctor François Duvalier is elected President in 1957. "Papa Doc" vows to extend power to the black masses but turns the country into a police state. In 1971, Duvalier's son declares himself President for life
Hopes dashed
In 1990, Jean-Bertrand Aristide wins the country's first free elections. He is deposed less than eight months later. Tens of thousands flee for Florida in small boats
New era, new problems
After the ruling military junta agrees to give up power, Bill Clinton sends in 20,000 U.S. troops in 1994. HIV and entrenched poverty ravage the population. Aristide returns to power in 2001 but is forced into exile in 2004
Natural disasters
Hurricanes in 2005 and 2008 displace hundreds of thousands. A period of relative calm precedes this year's massive earthquake

How You Can Help
Less than 24 hours after the earthquake in Haiti, the Red Cross announced it had already raised $800,000 from text messages alone. Much more is needed. But beware: when tragedy strikes, scammers do too. The FBI is already warning the public to carefully review donation solicitations related to the earthquake that are sent via e-mail or social networks. Stick with organizations that are familiar, and give directly to them, not through third parties. Here are some legitimate groups raising money for victims.
American Red Cross
You can donate $10 by text-messaging "Haiti" to 90999
AmeriCares Foundation
Catholic Relief Services
Doctors Without Borders
NOTE: Review the instructions at
http://support.ebsco.com/help/?int=ehost&lang=&feature_id=MLA and make any necessary corrections before using. Pay special attention to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Always consult your library resources for the exact formatting and punctuation guidelines.

Works Cited

Clinton, Bill. "What Haiti Needs." Time 175.3 (2010): 37. MAS Ultra - School Edition. EBSCO. Web. 9 Feb. 2010.